Contents

- 1 Convert the numbers
- 2 14. Realize all the gates using NAND & NOR gates.
- 3 15. BCD to 7 segment display.
- 4 16. Draw 8:1 multiplexer using 2:1 mux.
- 5 Application of encoder and decoder.
- 6 BCD to excess-3 code converter.
- 7 Parity Generator
- 8 SR Flip Flop
- 9 JK Flip Flop
- 10 D Flip Flop
- 11 T Flip Flop
- 12 What is Race around condition in JK Flip Flop what are the various techniques to overcome this problem.
- 13 Decade Counter
- 14 3 bit asynchronous up-down counter
- 15 3 bit synchronous up-down counter

Here we will cover the important question from numerous topic in digital electronics to revise the basic concept on the college level.

These digital electronics questions on GATES, Flip Flop, Counters. Multiplexer/Dmultiplexer , Encoder/Decoder can help you to understand the very basic of digital electronics.

## Convert the numbers

**1. (3DA) _{16} = (X)_{2} find X.**

**Ans. **(3DA)_{16} in BCD will be (0011 1101 1010)_{2}

X= 0011 1101 1010

**2. (0011 0110.0110) = (X) _{16} find X**.

**Ans.**

(0011)_{2 }= (3)_{10}

(0110)_{2}=(6)_{10}

(.0110)_{2}=(.6)_{10}

X=36.6

**3. Number of bits required to represent 6128 in Binary ?**

**Ans**.

(1011111110000)_{2} 13 bits.

**4. (SqrRoot(41)) _{x} = (25)_{y}. find x and y.**

**Ans.**

4x+y =2y+5

=> 2x-y=2

x=5,y=8 or x=6,y=10 or x=7,y=12 or x=8,y=14

here x and y should be greater then 4 and 5 retrospectively.

**5. (11111111) _{2} = (X)_{10} find X.**

**Ans.** X = 244

**6. (1100.1011) _{2} = (X)_{10} find X**.

**Ans.** X = 12.6875

**7. (255) _{12} = (X)_{2}**

**Ans.** (100001001)_{2}

**8. (10.625) _{10} = (X)_{2}**

**Ans.** X = 1010.101

**9.** **Add 1010.1101 adding 101.01 .**

**Ans.** 10000.0001

**10. Represent the following in 2 _{s} complement.**

**i) +3 **= 1101**ii) +25** = 11001**iii) -5** =1011**iv)-11** = 10101

**11. 01000-01001 using 2 _{s} compliment.**

**Ans.** (11111)_{2}

**12. (6327.4051) _{8} to decimal.**

**Ans.** (3289.0100)_{10}

**14.** **Realize all the gates using NAND & NOR gates.**

**NOR as OR Gate & NOR as AND Gate**

**NOR as XNOR**

NOR as XOR

**15. BCD to 7 segment display.**

[download id=”6641″]

**16. Draw 8:1 multiplexer using 2:1 mux.**

**ii) Draw 16 : 1 using 4:1 multiplexer.**

Application of multiplexer are.

- Communication system
- Telephone network
- Computer memory
- Transmission from the computer system of a satellite

**Application of encoder and decoder.**

**Encoder applications**

**Aerospace:**encoder provides high precision motion feedback while operating in encoder value.**Autonomous vehicles and robots :**Encoder provide precise, reliable motion feedback in automated robotic application.**Converting :**encoders provide feedback for speed, direction and distance for precisely controlled operations.**Filling :**Encoder ensure that the item to be filled is in the correct position before the filling mechanism activates.

**Decoder Applications**

- Microprocessor memory systems – selecting different banks of memory.
- Microprocessor input/output systems – selecting different devices.
- Microprocessor instruction decoding – enabling different functional units.
- Memory Chips – enabling different rows of memory depending on address.

**BCD to excess-3 code converter.**

## Parity Generator

**Characteristic equation for SR,JK,T and D Flip Flop with truth table**

## SR Flip Flop

## JK Flip Flop

## D Flip Flop

## T Flip Flop

## What is Race around condition in JK Flip Flop what are the various techniques to overcome this problem.

For JK Flip Flop, If J+K+1 and clock = 1 for a long period of time, then output Q will be toggle as long as clock remains high which makes the output unstable and uncertain.

- t/2 < propagation delay of Flip Flop
- Edge triggering should be used.
- Master Slave